Musa sp.
Plantain, Banana
  Evidence for Efficacy (Human Data)
   Clinical Trials  (10)
   Observational Studies/Case Reports  (19)
   Ethnobotanical Use  (5)
   Adverse Effects & Toxicity   (9)
   Interactions   (0)
   Contraindications   (0)
  Methods of Preparation
   Contemporary Standardized Methods  (0)
   Folk Methods  (0)
   Contemporary Formulas   (0)
   Folk Blends   (0)
  Evidence of Activity
   Pharmacodynamics  (8)
   Animal Studies  (18)
   Analytical Chemistry  (35)
   Pharmacokinetics (ADME)  (0)
   Genetics & Molecular Biology  (4)
 Other Information
   Pictures & Distribution Maps   (1)
   Cultivation, Conservation & Ecology   (0)
   Related Links   (2)
  Dynamic Updates
   Live PubMed Searches  (10)
  History of Records
   History of Record (1)
Clinical Trials
  Rehydration of children with acute diarrheal diseases by plantain flour-based solution Arias 1997
  Banana flakes reduce diarrhea in a study of 31 enterally fed patients Emery 1997
  Plaque pH was lowered equally by banana or 10% sucrose Hussein 1996
  Gastric acid was higher following ripe banana compared to porridge in a study of 115 people, so cannot be considered a 'bland' food Dadoo 1995
  PG-I & PG-II in 1365 people increased with the level of Helicobacter pylori infection and decreased with pre-cancerous lesions. Low I/II ratio is inversely associated with tobacco, fresh fruit & plantain Kato 1995
  "Effect of ripening on resistant starch and total sugars in Musa paradisiaca sapientum: glycaemic and insulinaemic responses in normal subjects and NIDDM patients " (no abstract) Lintas 1995
  Among 279 colorectal cancer patients, consumption of bacon was high and banana & papaya was low Lohsoonthorn 1995
  Stool volume of children with acute diarrhea is reduced by fiber containing foods (grain, potato, plantain) Molla 1990
  Plasma dopamine tripled following banana ingestion without affecting the level in cerebrospinal fluid in a study with 38 neurological patients Kuchel 1985
  Postprandial blood glucose responses of insulin dependent diabetics to pure glucose, apple and banana were almost identical, while the response after orange was somewhat weaker Vaaler 1982
Observational Studies/Case Reports
  Mango, sapota & banana had the same effect on blood glucose in 10 diabetics Contractor 1999
  Glycemic index of unripe plantain, Ga kenkey, Gari, rice and yam in 10 adults Brakohiapa 1997
  Urinary excretion of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid increased after eating banana, pineapple, tomato, kiwi fruit and walnut Mashige 1996
  Banana starch proved very resistant to in vivo amylase hydrolysis with 84% of the starch reaching the terminal ileum in study of 6 people Faisant 1995
  "Use of banana leaves in Stevens-Johnson syndrome " (no abstract) Dharnidharka 1994
  Ripening decreases poorly digestible starch and increases free sugar content of bananas but made little difference in blood glucose of 7 people Ercan 1993
  Serotonin in bananas is 25 micrograms/g pulp. Urinary 5-HIAA & 5-HTOL increased many fold shortly after eating 3-4 bananas, returning to normal after 8-10 h. Alcohol increased the ratio of them Helander 1992
  Mean postprandial blood glucose response area and glycemic index of under-ripe banana (62 mmol/l x 4hr & 43), over-ripe banana (106 mmol/l x 4hr & 74) and white bread (181 mmol/l x 4hr) in two diabetics Hermansen 1992
  Glucose-response curves to mango and banana were less than those to rambutan, durian and pineapple in 10 NIDDM patients Roongpisuthipong 1991
  Ingestion of bananas caused an increase of vanilmandelic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid and homovanillic acid in 24-h urine Odink 1988
  Blood-glucose response to meals containing grapes, honeydew, orange, or strawberries was slightly higher than meals containing apple, banana, or no fruit in 10 insulin dependent diabetics Hoover-Plow 1987
  Protein balance of plantain/bean diet is not reached even with 117 mg/kg/d in 10 people; only about half is assimilated Navarrete 1984
  Ascorbic acid attenuated the rise in sulfate conjugated dopamine & epinephrine in humans Dunne 1983
  Blood pressure & pulse rate increased only while plasma free dopamine concentrations exceeded that of the sulfate, indicating the latter is inactive. Dietary dopamine is conjugated in the gut Kuchel 1982
  Blood glucose was high in people eating boiled cocoyam, roasted yam, glucose & boiled plantains, and low for boiled beans and garri Oli 1982
  "Treatment of plantar warts with banana skin " (no abstract) Warzawer-Schwarcz 1981
  The low protein in cassava and plantain can be overcome by other indigenous crops Omawale 1979
  Plantain meals and serum 5-hydroxytryptamine in healthy Nigerians Ojo 1969
  "Urinary excretion of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-mandelic acid and banana feeding " (no abstract) Borrell 1967
Ethnobotanical Use
  Musa sapientum commonly known as 'banana' is widely used in Indian folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus Pari 2000
  Strychnos cocculoides; Musa species; Solanum delegoense; Ximenia caffra; Diplorynchus condylocarpon; and Croton megalobotrys are used by traditional healers of Zambia Ndubani 1999
  Pakastani women classified chicken, meat, egg, brinjal, masoor & mangoes as hot foods and rice, yogurt, moong, banana & orange as cold foods Nizami 1999
  Stem juice has been used as an arrow poison by African tribesmen. Muscle contraction assay indicates this is due to potassium nitrate and magnesium nitrate Singh 1993
  Childhood diarrhea is often treated with increased plantain in Nigeria Ekanem 1990
No Records
Adverse Effects & Toxicity
  Chitinases in fruits & nuts appear to be involved in cross reaction with latex allergy Diaz-Perales 1999
  Hevein and a hevein-like domain of endochitinase in banana appear responsible for cross sensitivity in allergic people Mikkola 1998
  "Banana allergy in infants " (no abstract) Tokuyama 1997
  The most important antigen for IgG4 antibodies to banana is a lectin, BanLec-I. This lectin might be a potentially useful carrier protein for oral antihapten immunization Koshte 1992
  Case of anaphylactic shock, asthma, angioedema, and urticaria after eating a banana Linaweaver 1976
  Obliteration of the cardiac lymph drainage & fibroelastotic lesions associated with prolonged feeding with a plantain diet in Patus monkeys McKinney 1976
  "Etiology of endomyocardial fibrosis: an experimental evaluation of plantain ingestion and chronic lymphatic obstruction " (no abstract) Antia 1968
  "Plantain diets, serotonin, and endomyocardial fibrosis " (no abstract) Shaper 1967
  "Fibrosis in guineapig heart produced by plantain diet " (no abstract) McKinney 1965
No Records
Contemporary Standardized Methods
No Records
Folk Methods
No Records
Contemporary Formulas
No Records
Folk Blends
No Records
Analytical Chemistry
  beta-1,3-endoglucanase (EC has been isolated from the pulp of ripe bananas, believed to be involved in the ripening process Peumans 2000
  (-)-epigallocatechin is converted to (-)-gallocatechin and an oxidation product, 1-(3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl)-3-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)-2-hydroxy-1-propanone by banana fruit Tanaka 2000
  Iron content of banana is 8-15 mg/kg, in the same range as grain Elpo 1998
  Polygalacturonase in ripe & unripe banana (Musa acuminata) Pathak 1998
  Polysaccharide components present in the pseudo-stem (scape) of M. paradisiaca Anjaneyalu 1997
  Sucrose-phosphate synthase (EC in banana increases during ripening do Nascimento 1997
  Starch is generally low in fruits except for plantain which has 31% Sanchez Castillo 1997
  Dietary fiber in foods Tanya 1997
  Salsolinol and N-methylsalsolinol in banana Deng 1996
  Nine vegetables (potato, tomato, green bean, green/red pepper, carrot, artichoke, spinach, lettuce, beet) and 5 fruits (orange, tangerine, banana, peach, watermelon) account for most of carotenoid intake Granado 1996
  Banana peel is 1/3 fiber (dw) Ranzani 1996
  Trace element concentrations in the fruit peels and trunks of Musa paradisiaca Selema 1996
  Carotenoid content of banana peel was 3-4 micrograms per gram as lutein equivalent. Subagio 1996
  Tyramine content of 51 foods including raspberries, bananas, and banana peels Walker 1996
  Resistant starch is relatively high in sorghum, green gram dhal and green plantain Platel 1994
  Composition of banana flour (% dry matter): protein 3.2; fat 1.3; ash 3.7; neutral fiber 8.9; acid fiber 3.8; cellulose 3.1; lignin 1.0 hemicellulose 5.0, soluble sugars2.8, starch 70, non-starch polysaccharides 12 Suntharalingam 1993
  Protein & iron content of yam, plantain & cocoyam Udo 1993
  Phosphofructokinase is primarily responsible for the increased entry of fructose 6-phosphate into glycolysis in ripening bananas Ball 1991
  BanLec-I, a 27 kD lectin from banana, is specific for oligomannosidic glycans larger than (Man)6GlcNAc, stimulated T-cell proliferation Koshte 1990
  Mycotoxins, trichothecolone, diacetoxyscirpenol, and T-2 toxin, and a hyperestrogenic factor, zearalenone in banana fruits infected with Fusarium moniliforme Chakrabarti 1986
  Serotonin of 80 foods (mg/kg): plantain 30.3; pineapple 17.0; banana 15.0; Kiwi fruit 5.8; plums 4.7; tomatoes 3.2; butternuts 398; black walnuts 304; English walnuts 87; shagbark hickory nuts 143; mockernut hickory nuts 67; pecans 29 Feldman 1985
  "Composition of plantain leaves (Musa paradisiaca L., subsp. normalis O. Kze). A possible source for leaf protein concentrate " (no abstract) Rosas Romero 1983
  Serotonin is 10--30 ppm in bananas, 5 ppm in tomatoes Garcia-Moreno 1980
  Chemical composition and usability as feed of banana pulp and peel Sharaf 1979
  "Identification of salsolinol as a major dopamine metabolite in the banana " (no abstract) Riggin 1976
  5-hydroxytryptamine content of banans and banana products Vettorazzi 1974
  "Chemical composition of unripe (green) and ripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) " (no abstract) Ketiku 1973
  "An allosteric alpha-glucan phosphorylase from banana fruits " (no abstract) Singh 1973
  "Banana and L-dopa " (no abstract) Garfinkel 1972
  "Tyrosine hydroxylation in the banana plant " (no abstract) Nagatsu 1972
  "The isolation of 31-norcyclolaudenone from Musa sapientum " (no abstract) Knapp 1970
  "Ascorbic acid content of tubers and plantain of Cameroon before and after cooking " (no abstract) Le Berre 1969
  "Present state of our knowledge of the biochemistry, physiology and nutritive value of the banana " (French, no abstract) Agot 1968
  "Hypoglycaemic principle in Musa sapientum L. and its isolation " (no abstract) Jain 1968
  "Banana smoking. Chromatographic analysis of baked skins " (no abstract) Angrist 1967
  Growth stimulation of Gram negative E. coli, Shigella, Enterobacter & Salmonella correlated with norepinephrine & dopamine content (but not serotonin) of banana peel & pulp Lyte 1997
  Inhibition of contractions of the tibialis muscle by juice of the banana trunk is much like oxalate, which may be the basis of the activity Benitez 1991
  Beta-glucuronidase & beta-hexosaminidase decreased in the aorta in rats fed cholesterol free diet and given dietary fiber isolated as neutral detergent residue from unripe banana Usha 1991
  Skeletal muscle twitch increase by Musa stem juice is Ca2+ dependent Singh 1990
  "Activation of peritoneal macrophages by sitoindoside-IV, an anti-ulcerogenic acylsterylglycoside from Musa paradisiaca " (no abstract) Chattopadhyay 1987
  Skeletal muscle contraction & paralysis by extract from the trunk of the banana tree is dose dependent and increased by neostigmine or reversed by calcium pretreatment Singh 1985
  Non-depolarising neuromuscular block by juice of the banana trunk is reduced by oxidation or anticholinesterases Lee 1980
  "The great banana hoax " (no abstract) Bozzetti 1967
Pharmacokinetics (ADME)
No Records
Genetics & Molecular Biology
  MA-ACS1 encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase in banana fruit was the gene related to the ripening process and was inducible by ethylene Liu 1999
  Thiabendazole & imazalil pesticide residue in citrus & banana Ito 1998
  DNA fingerprinting of wild & cultivated Musa Kaemmer 1992
  Protease inhibition (proteolysis of casein by trypsin, chymotrypsin and papain) was greater by ripe banana than by unripe ones, and is heat stable Rao 1991
Animal Studies
  Blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin were reduced by flower extract of M. sapientum, 0.15, 0.20 & 0.25 g/kg orally to alloxan diabetic rats Pari 2000
  Aspirin-induced erosion is protected against by leucocyanidin (a flavonoid from unripe plantain banana) or dried unripe plantain banana powder Lewis 1999
  Of 28 plants studied, 8 decrease the hyperglycemic peak in rabbits: Guazuma ulmifolia, Tournefortia hirsutissima, Lepechinia caulescens, Rhizophora mangle, Musa sapientum, Trigonella foenum graceum, Turnera diffusa, and Euphorbia prostrata Alarcon-Aguilara 1998
  Aorta is relaxed by plantain extract but contracted by serotonin Orie 1997
  Cassava diet caused endomyocardial fibrosis in Cercopithecus whereas banana doesn't Sezi 1996
  "Actions of banana tree extract on smooth and cardiac muscles and in the anesthetized rat " (no abstract) Singh 1996
  Glycollate induced urine stones were reduced by banana stem extract in rats Poonguzhali 1994
  Urine stones (zinc induced) were reduced by Musa stem juice (3 ml/d orally) in rats Prasad 1993
  "Dietary fiber from Musa paradisiaca and Artocarpus heterophyllus on intestinal mucosal and bacterial beta-glucuronidase activity in hexachlorocyclohexane-treated rats " (no abstract) Serji 1993
  Cholesterol is lowered by banana rich diet in rats but benefit is lost if the pulp is heat dried at 65 degrees Horigome 1992
  Activity of glycogen phosphorylase, glucose-1-phosphate, uridyl transferase & glycogen synthase was higher while phosphoglucomutase activity was lower in liver of rats fed banana fiber. Bile production was increased Usha 1989
  Increased carbohydrate in gastric mucosa and decreased protein in gastric juice of rats fed banana pulp powder Mukhopadhyaya 1987
  Mucosal thickening and cell proliferation appears to be the mechanism of anti-ulcerogenic activity of banana Goel 1986
  Aspirin-induced ulceration is alleviated by dried unripe plantain banana (but not ripe ones) in rats. The active factor(s) were water soluble and concentrated to 300 times that in the dried banana powder Best 1984
  "Experiments with banana trunk juice as a neuromuscular blocker " (no abstract) Lee 1980
  "Eating banana in cats for brain stimulation reward " (no abstract) Wyrwicka 1974
  "Investigations on subsidiary feeds. I. Banana (Musa spp) leaves as cattle fodder " (no abstract) Johri 1967
  "Studies on peptic ulceration. II. Role of banana in restraint and prednisolone induced ulcer in albino rats " (no abstract) Sanyal 1965
Pictures & Distribution Maps
  Images of different species listed at HortPlex
Cultivation, Conservation & Ecology
No Records
Related Links
  Taxonomic information from GRIN
  Plants for the Future
Live PubMed Searches
  Musa and Analytical Chemistry
  Musa and Animal Studies
  Musa and Ethnobotanical Use
  Musa and Genetics
  Musa and In Vitro Studies
  Musa and Pharmacokinetics
  Musa and Preparations and Formulary
  Musa and Therapeutic Activity
  Musa and Tissue Cultures
  Musa and Toxicology


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