Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi
Baical Skullcap
  Evidence for Efficacy (Human Data)
   Clinical Trials  (6)
   Observational Studies/Case Reports  (0)
   Ethnobotanical Use  (7)
   Adverse Effects & Toxicity   (5)
   Interactions   (0)
   Contraindications   (0)
  Methods of Preparation
   Contemporary Standardized Methods  (6)
   Folk Methods  (0)
   Contemporary Formulas   (5)
   Folk Blends   (0)
  Evidence of Activity
   Pharmacodynamics  (28)
   Animal Studies  (14)
   Analytical Chemistry  (18)
   Pharmacokinetics (ADME)  (0)
   Genetics & Molecular Biology  (5)
 Other Information
   Pictures & Distribution Maps   (3)
   Cultivation, Conservation & Ecology   (1)
   Related Links   (2)
  Dynamic Updates
   Live PubMed Searches  (10)
  History of Records
   History of Record (1)
Clinical Trials
  Review finds safety and effectiveness with Hypericum for depression, Kava for anxiety and Valerian, catnip, chamomile, gotu kola, hops, lavender, passionflower, skullcap for sleep Cauffield 1999
  Dry S. baicalensis extract increased, in 88 cancer patients, hemopoiesis, bone-marrow erythro- and granulocytopoiesis and circulating precursors of erythroid and granulomonocytic colony-forming units [Article in Russian] Gol'dberg 1997
  S. baicalensis extract improves the immunologic status of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy [Article in Russian] Smol'ianinov 1997
  Sanhuang (Astragalus membranaceus, Coptis chinensis, Scutellaria baicalensis) inhibits platelet aggregation in patients as well as aspirin 50 mg/day [Article in Chinese] Huang 1995
  30 pulmonary infection patients injected with scutellaria compound did about as well as 30 given piperacillin (lactam antibiotic) [Article in Chinese] Lu 1990
  For childrens minimal brain dysfunction a mixture of Bupleurum chinense, S. baicalensis, Astragalus membranaceus, Codonopsis pilosula, Ligustrum lucidum, Lophatherum gracile and thread of ivory was about as effective as retalin [Article in Chinese] Zhang 1990
Observational Studies/Case Reports
No Records
Ethnobotanical Use
  Efficacy and safety of phototherapy for neonatal jaundice have been established but it is still treated in China with Yin-chen (Artemisia) Da-huang (Rheum), Huang-qin (Scutellaria), Gan-cao (Glycyrrhiza) and Huang-lian (Coptis) Ho 1996
  Scutellaria barbata (traditional Chinese medicine for liver, lung and rectal tumours) inhibited the aflatoxin mutagenicity and cytochrome P450-linked aminopyrine N-demethylase Wong 1993
         Scutellaria baicalensis in Cornell Ethnobotanical Database [EthnobotDB]
         Scullcaps in Mrs. M. Grieve's A Modern Herbal
         Skullcap (Scutellaria laterifolia) in David L. Hoffmann's Herbal Materia Medica
         Scutellaria in King's American Dispensatory
         Extract of Scutellaria in King's American Dispensatory
No Records
Adverse Effects & Toxicity
  Scullcap--liver damage [Article in Norwegian] Buajordet 1992
  Salmonella/AFB1 mutagenic reversion assay was inhibited by Scutellaria barbata > Ligustrum lucidum > Astragalus membranaceus > Oldenlandia diffusa Wong 1992
         Adulteration with the hepatotoxic Teucrium has been reported and was to blame for a report against skullcap--De Smet. In Adverse effects of herbal drugs. Ed: De Smet, Keller K, et al. Springer Verlag Heidelberg. 1993 vol 3 p 137-44
         Liver toxicity has been blamed on preparations labeled as containing skullcap--De Smet. In Adverse effects of herbal drugs. Ed: De Smet, Keller K, et al. Springer Verlag Heidelberg. 1993 vol 2 p 289-96.
         Adverse events reports at the FDA's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition [FDA]
No Records
Contemporary Standardized Methods
  Quality control test for baicalin content by TLC and HPLC [Article in Chinese] Zheng 1996
  Ultrasound reduces heat and time for extracting baicalin from Scutellaria [Article in Chinese] Guo 1994
  HPLC determination of baicalin in drug processed four different ways [Article in Chinese] Wang 1994
  TLC quality control of S. baicalensis, Gardenia, Anemarrhena and berberine [Article in Chinese] Han 1993
  TLC differentiation of S. baialensis from S. rehderiana, S. viscidula, S. amoena and S. likiangensis [Article in Chinese] Su 1991
Folk Methods
No Records
Contemporary Formulas
         Skin lotion of liposomes containing Scutellaria extracts; US Patent 5,643,598
         Prostate cancer preventive mixture of Panax pseudo-ginseng, Isatis Indigotica, Ganoderma lucidum, Dendranthema morifolium, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Scutellaria baicalensis, Rabdosia rubescens, Serenoa repens; US Patent 5,665,393
         Prostate carcinoma treatment with Panax, Isatis, Ganoderma, Dendranthema, Glycyrrhiza, Scutellaria, Rabdosia, Serenoa; US Patent 5,665,393
         Cosmetic formulation of mulberry, saxifrage, grape and scutellaria to inhibit unwanted skin pigmentation; US Patent 5,773,014
         Optional ingredient in screen formulation; US Patent 5,817,299
Folk Blends
  Urine after Saiboku-To treatment, a Chinese asthma remedy, had magnolol from M. officinalis; medicarpin and liquiritigenin from Glycyrrhiza glabra; baicalein, wogonin, and oroxylin A from Scutellaria baicalensis; and davidigenin of unknown origin Homma 1997
  Sho-saiko-to (used in Japan by patients with chronic viral liver disease) induction of IL-10 attributed to Scutellaria and Glycyrrhiza. It also prevents rise of IL4 and IL5 Yamashiki 1997
  Effect of the components (Artemisia, Gardenia, Rheum, and S. baicalensis) of Yin Zhi Huang (widely used in Asia to treat neonatal jaundice) on metabolic enzymes Yin 1993
  Huangqin is more effective than its components for spasm and pain. Scutellariae root has the main role of heat clearing and is potentiated by Paeony root. Spasm and pain relief may result from the synergism of Paeony and Glycyrrhiza [Article in Chinese] Huang 1991
  Huangqin Tang and some of its components: Paeonia lactiflora roots, Scutellaria baicalensis and Glycyrrhiza uralensis, and Ziziphus jujuba fruit are anti-inflammatory, analgesic, sedative and antispastic [Article in Chinese] Huang 1990
Analytical Chemistry
  Scutebaicalin with K-t-BuO yielded the (13S)- and (13R)- 8beta,13-epoxyclerodanes, by Michael-type heterocyclization reaction. Scutalpin B (4) gave the corresponding (11E)-11-deacetoxy-12-dehydro derivative by elimination Hussein 1998
  Benzodiazepine binding assay directed separation led to the identification of 3 flavones baicalein, oroxylin A, and skullcapflavone II from the water extract of Scutellaria baicalensis root. Ki was 13.1, 14.6 and 0.36 micromol/L, respectively Liao 1998
  Baicalein 7-O-beta-D-glucuronide is hydrolyzed in S. baicalensis cells by beta-glucuronidase. The baicalein is then quickly oxidized to 6,7-dehydrobaicalein by H2O2-peroxidases. Two peroxidases isolated are specific to baicalein, and not other flavones Morimoto 1998
  S. planipes has similar HPLC spectrum, antiallergic and antibacterial activities in vitro as S. baicalensis Zhang 1998
  Isolation of E-1-(4'-Hydroxyphenyl)-but-1-en-3-one from Scutellaria barbata. Ducki 1996
  Beta-D-Glucuronidase (baicalinase, [EC]) from Scutellaria root is composed of 55kD active subunits. Optimal catalytic activity is at pH 4.7 Ikegami 1995
  Flavones from Scutellaria baicalensis roots Ishimaru 1995
  Nerve binding: A. sinensis: GABA, 5-HT1A; A. pubescentis: GABA, 5-HT1A, D2, D1; Scutellaria: BDZ, D1, 5-HT1A; Gentian: GABA, BDZ, 5-HT1A, D2; Cimicifuga: 5-HT1A; Zizphi: 5-HT1A, 5-HT2, GABA; Bupleuri: D2, 5-HT1A, GABA; Salvia: BDZ; Datura: M1, 5-HT1A and 2 Liao 1995
  Betulalbuside, 8-hydroxylinaloyl,3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, ipolamide, acteoside (verbascoside), leucosceptoside A, martynoside, forsythoside, phlinoside and teuerioside from Phlomis armeniaca and Scutellaria salviifolia Saracoglu 1995
  Cytotoxic flavonoids from Scutellaria indica. Bae 1994
  Flavonoids and phenylethanoids from the root of S. repens [Article in Japanese] Matsuura 1994
  Neo-clerodane diterpenes from leaves of Scutellaria alpina [Article in Japanese] Miyaichi 1994
  Darendoside A and B (= deacyl martynoside), syringin, martynoside, leucosceptoside A and verbascoside identified in aerial parts of Scutellaria orientalis Calis 1993
  RP-HPLC separation of flavonoid glycosides of Scutellaria ikonnikovii Wang 1991
  Scuteamoenin (2',5,6'-trihydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone) and 6 known compounds (2R,3R) -3,5,7-trihydroxyflavanone (II), 2',3,5,6,7-pentahydroxyflavone, 2',5,7-trihydroxy-6-methoxyflavone, skullcaflavone II, chrysin and beta-sitosterol found in S. amoena root [Article in Chinese] Hu 1990
  New flavonoids from the root of Scutellaria amoena [Article in Chinese] Hu 1989
  Structure of scuterivulactone D determined by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. A new diterpenoid from a Chinese crude drug "ban zhi lian" (Scutellaria rivularis Wall.). Kizu 1987
         Scutellaria baicalensis in PhytochemDB
  Water extract of Scutellariae baicalensis root inhibits histamine (100 microM)-induced Ca2+ and inositol phosphates in a concentration-dependent manner in glioma cells Kyo 1998
  Sho-saiko-to decreased expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and cdk6, arrested Mel-ret cells in G1 and induced apoptotic cell death with an increase of cell surface Fas antigen and Fas ligand Liu 1998
  Baicalein in methanol extract of Scutellaria baicalensis, and methyl gallate of Rheum officinale and Paeonia suffruticosa inhibit intestinal sucrase Nishioka 1998
  A semisynthetic flavonoid from the Baikal skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis) as an agent to enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy in experimental tumors [Article in Russian] Razina 1998
  Baicalin is a more potent antioxidant than BHTagainst photoinduced lipid peroxidation Gabrielska 1997
  Baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxy flavone) dose-dependently inhibited ELAM and ICAM induced by IL-1B (IC50 23 and 40 microM) or TNF-alpha (IC50 15 and 31 microM) Kimura 1997
  Baicalein inhibited trypsin induced reduction of t-PA and increase of PAI-1 Kimura 1997
  Baicalein dose-dependently (IC50 6.8 microM) inhibited thrombin induced Ca2+ and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and no effect on tissue plasminogen activator so it might be useful for arteriosclerosis and thrombosis Kimura 1997
  Hepatoprotective effect of Ban-zhi-lian (Scutellaria rivularis) extracts, compared with Glycyrrhizin and Silymarin Lin 1997
  Permeation through skin by ginsenoside-Re, baicalein, glycyrrhizin, wogonin, honokiol, magnolol, bergapten, shikonin, and sinomenine Sekiya 1997
  Wogonin, baicalein, and baicalin at 1 microgram/ml had activity similar to prednisolone in LPS-induced production of IL-1 beta. They also inhibit collagen lysis and augment fibroblast activity Chung 1995
  Scutellaria flavonoid reduced the mutagenic action of zeolites and chrysotile-asbestos on cultured human whole blood [Article in Russian] Daugel'-Dauge 1995
  Isoscutellarein-8-methylether (5,7,4'-trihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone, F36) suppressed replication of influenza viruses by 50% at 20 microM and 90% at 40 microM. At 120 microM it inhibited membrane fusion Nagai 1995
  5,7,4'-trihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone, from S. baicalensis roots, at 11 microM reduced single-cycle replication of influenza virus Nagai 1995
  Extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis root are fungistatic against Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans and Pityrosporum ovale [Article in French] Yang 1995
  11 B HSD and prednisolone metabolism inhibition by components of Saiboku-To: Glycyrrhiza glabra > Perillae frutescens > Zizyphus vulgaris > Magnolia officinalis > Scutellaria baicalensis Homma 1994
  Baicalein, baicalin and wogonin dose dependently inhibited the proliferative responses of cultured rabbit vascular smooth muscle Huang 1994
  Liver cancer cell proliferation was inhibited by sho-saiko-to more than its components, saikosaponin, ginsenoside, glycyrrhizin, baicalin, baicalein and wogonin, by arresting at G0/G1 and inducing apoptosis Yano 1994
  Baicalein (5,6,7-trioxyflavone-7-O-beta-D-glucuronide) inhibited leukotriene C4 biosynthesis by macrophages, IC50: 9.5microM Butenko 1993
  Baicalin inhibits HIV-1 syncytium formation and reverse transcriptase, in vitro Li 1993
  Thromboxane A2 is inhibited by Glehnia, Erigeron, Rheum, Codonopsis, Astragalus, Angelica sinensis, Ginsenosides and Baicalin, etc. PGI2 is increased by Glehnia and little affected by the others [Article in Chinese] Wang 1993
  Baicalin treatment selectively reduced the detectable levels of HTLV-I p19 gag protein in infected cells with no loss in viability Baylor 1992
  Isoscutellarein (5,7,8,4'-tetrahydroxyflavone) from S. baicalensis leaf non-competitively inhibited (IC50 20 microM) hydrolysis of sodium p-nitrophenyl-N-acetyl-alpha-D-neuraminate by influenza virus sialidase with an apparent Ki value of 41 microM Nagai 1992
  5,7,4'-Trihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis was the most potent (IC50, 55 microM) out of 103 flavonoids against influenza virus sialidase Nagai 1990
  Reverse transcriptase of avian myeloblastosis, Rous-associated virus-2 and Maloney murine leukemia virus were inhibited by amentoflavone, scutellarein and quercetin Spedding 1989
  Huangqin (Scutellaria sp.) inhibited Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris at 200 micrograms/ml Franzblau 1986
  Huang-chin (S. baicalensis) decoction, at 2% concentration, was bacteriostatic in eight of 11 oral bacteria tested Tsao 1982
  Wormicidal effect on Clonorchis sinensis by 206 plants: best were Platycodon, Schizandra, Polygala, Aster. Also effective were Smilax, Pueraria, Polygala, Scutellaria, Prunus, Glycyrrhiza, Angelica, Phytolacca, Cyrtomium Rhee 1981
Pharmacokinetics (ADME)
No Records
Genetics & Molecular Biology
  Baicalein is more potent than baicalin at inhibiting (concentration-dependently) intracellular Ca2+ increase induced by histamine, noradrenaline or carbachol. This suggests phospholipase C may be the target Kyo 1998
  Scutellaria barbata and tea polyphenol inhibit damage to DNA in lymphocytes caused by the total particle material extracted from cigarette tar [Article in Chinese] Han 1997
  Oren-gedoku-to, a Chinese traditional, and its components (S. baicalensis, Coptis, Gardenia and Phellodendron) or baicailein inhibit acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase activity Yotsumoto 1997
  Baicalein, esculetin and the related wogonin, esculin and scoparone, inhibit human T-lymphoid leukemia cells. Baicalein is strongest with IC50 of 4.7 microM. They also inhibit tyrosine kinase which may be the mechanism Huang 1994
         Scutellaria baicalensis in Mendel Gene Database
Animal Studies
  S. baicalensis dry extract and the bioflavonoid baicalin stimulate erythropoiesis lowered by sleep or conflict. Effect appears related to adrenergic activity [Article in Russian] Dygai 1998
  Corticosterone increased, dose-dependently, and prostaglandin E2 decreased in rats fed Hange-shashin-to (TJ-14) at 125 -1000 mg/kg. This is due to the licorice and ginseng. Other components (Scutellaria, Coptis, Glycyrrhizia) may be COX-2 inhibitors Kase 1998
  Baicalin has more anti-inflammatory activity than baicalein or wogonin in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema Lin 1996
  Natural killer (NK) activity is enhanced in mice by Shosaiko-to a Kampo mixture of Bupleuri Radix, Pinelliae Tuber, Scutellariae Radix, Zizyphi Fructus, Ginseng Radix, Glycyrrhizae Radix and Zingiberis Rhizoma Yamaoka 1996
  Microsomes, from rats treated with baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxy-2-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one), had less lipid peroxidation Gao 1995
  S. rivularis, Bupleurum chinense and Bombax malabarica reduced CCL4-induced SGOT and SGPT and showed hepato-protective effects Chiu 1992
  Of 14 flavones from S. baicalensis root, 5,7,2'-trihydroxy- and 5,7,2',3'-tetrahydroxyflavone inhibited Epstein-Barr virus early antigen activation and mouse skin tumor promotion Konoshima 1992
  The adaptogen S. baicalensis normalized hormone parameters in rats disrupted by stress [Article in Russian] Udintsev 1991
  Isoscutellarein-8-O-glucuronide from the leaf of S. baicalensis showed most potent activity (IC50= 40 microM) against mouse liver sialidase out of 103 flavonoids Nagai 1989
  At10 micrograms/ml, wogonin and baicalein are more potent against mouse liver sialidase than wogonin glucuronide and baicalin while only wogonin inhibited Arthrobacter ureafaciens sialidase Nagai 1989
  Arachidonic acid biotransformation was inhibited by root aqueous extracts of ginger, Paeonia, Scutellaria, Rheum, indomethacin or by serum from rats treated 1 hour with Coptis, Paeonia or indomethacin Umeda 1988
  S. baicalensis extract ameliorates cyclophosphamide and 5-fluorouracil-induced myelotoxicity and decreases tumor cell viability [Article in Russian] Razina 1987
  IgE serum of rats was inhibited by aqueous extracts of Aurantii, Bupleuri, Schizandrae, Scutellariae, Zizyphi and Shohsaiko-to and Methanol extracts of Asiasari, Ginseng, Glycyrrhizae, Magnoliae and Trichosanthis S. [Article in Japanese] Koda 1982
  Scutellaria baicalensis produced a dose-dependent fall in rectal temperature in rats in a cold room Lin 1980
Pictures & Distribution Maps
         Photo by Henrietta Kress at Plant Picture
         Photo by Henrietta Kress at Plant Picture
         Photo by Henrietta Kress at Plant Picture
Cultivation, Conservation & Ecology
  Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium can markedly raise the production of Scutellaria baicalensis [Article in Chinese] Li 1993
Related Links
         Search for "Scutellaria baicalensis" at Citeline.com
         Scutellaria baicalensis in The HortiPlex Plant Database
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  Scutellaria baicalensis and Animal Studies
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RESEARCHED BY: Soaring Bear, Ph. D.    1998
EDITED BY: Michael Tims, Ph. D. cand.    1998

HerbMed® is copyrighted 1998 by the Alternative Medicine Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved.